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Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

PAM offers semiconductor materials,single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer grown by VGF / LEC
Item Description

Single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer

PWAM offers semiconductor materials,Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers grown by VGF / LEC

General Properties of Germanium Wafer

 

General  Properties Structure

Cubic, a = 5.6754 Å 

Density: 5.765 g/cm3

Melting   Point: 937.4 oC 

Thermal Conductivity: 640

Crystal Growth Technology

Czochralski 

Doping  available

Undoped

Sb Doping

Doping In or Ga 

Conductive Type

/   

P

Resistivity, ohm.cm

>35  

< 0.05  

0.05 - 0.1 

EPD 

< 5x103/cm 

< 5x103/cm2  

< 5x103/cm2  

< 5x102/cm 

< 5x102/cm2 

< 5x102/cm2  

  

 Grades and Application of Germanium wafer

Electronic Grade

Used for diodes and transistors,

Infrared or opitical Grade

Used for IR optical window or disks,opitical components

Cell Grade

Used for substrates of solar cell 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard Specs of  Germanium Crystal and wafer

 

 

 

 

 

Crystal Orientation

<111>,<100> and <110> ± 0.5o or custom orientation

Crystal boule as grown

1" ~ 6" diameter  x  200 mm Length

Standard blank as cut

1"x 0.5mm

2"x0.6mm

4"x0.7mm

5"&6"x0.8mm 

Standard Polished wafer(One/two sides polished)

1"x 0.30 mm

2"x0.5mm

4"x0.5mm

 5"&6"x0.6mm

Special size and orientation are available upon requested  Wafers

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

4 inch Ge wafer Specification

 

 

 

 

Doping

P

 

 

 

Doping substances

 Ge-Ga

 

 

 

Diameter

 100±0.25 mm

 

 

 

Orientation

(100) 9° off toward <111>+/-0.5

 

 

Off-orientation tilt angle

N/A

 

 

 

Primary Flat Orientation

N/A

 

 

 

Primary Flat Length

32±1

mm

 

 

Secondary Flat Orientation

 N/A

 

 

 

Secondary Flat Length

N/A

 mm

 

 

cc

(0.26-2.24)E18

/c.c

 

 

Resistivity

(0.74-2.81)E-2

ohm.cm

 

 

Electron Mobility

382-865

cm2/v.s.

 

 

EPD

<300

/cm2

 

 

Laser Mark

N/A

 

 

 

Thickness

175±10

 μm

 

 

TTV

15

μm

 

 

TIR

N/A

μm

 

 

BOW

 <10

μm

 

 

Warp

10

μm

 

 

Front face

 Polished

 

 

 

Back face

 Ground

 

 

 

 

Germanium Wafer Process

 
In the germanium wafer production process, germanium dioxide from the residue processing is further purified in chlorination and hydrolysis steps. 
1)High purity germanium is obtained during zone refining. 
 
2)A germanium crystal is produced via the Czochralski process. 
 
3)The germanium wafer is manufactured via several cutting, grinding, and etching steps. 
 
4)The wafers are cleaned and inspection. During this process, the wafers are single side polished or double side polished according to custom requirement, epi-ready wafer comes.
 
5)The wafers are packed in single wafer containers, under a nitrogen atmosphere.

 

 
Application:

Germanium blank or window are used in night vision and thermographic imaging solutions for commercial security, fire fighting and industrial monitoring equipment. Also, they are used as filters for analytical and measuring equipment, windows for remote temperature measurement, and mirrors for lasers.

Thin Germanium substrates are used in III-V triple-junction solar cells and for power Concentrated PV (CPV) systems.


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