InP Substrate

InP Substrate

Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co.,Ltd., a leading supplier of InP substrate and other related products and services, can offer InP substrate for Fiber optics network components. Our monocrystalline InP crystal substrate has excellent properties, a series of doping experiments have determined the effective segregation coefficient to be 1.6 × 10−3 for Fe in InP. Semi-insulating InP crystals with resistivity > 10^7 ohm-cm have been grown consistently from melts doped with 150 ppm Fe.

InP Substrate

Bulk polycrystalline InP(Indium Phosphide) is synthesized from the elements via a gradient freeze process. Hall data for a typical boule are Nd-Na= 4.7 × 1015/cm3 and Μ77 = 28,000 cm2/V-sec. Photoluminescence data indicate that zinc is present as an acceptor impurity in the polycrystalline InP and in nominally undoped VGF single crystals grown using the synthesized InP as charge material.

1. InP Substrate Specification 

Item Specification Unit
Growth Method VGF
Conductivity Type n
Dopant Si
Carrier Density (1~6) x 1018 cm -3
Mobility 1200 ~ 2000 cm2▪  V-1 ▪ sec-1
Resistivity (0.6~6) x 10-3 Ω ▪ cm
EPD ≤500 cm -2
Orientation (100) ± 0.2 degree
Thickness 350 ± 10 μm
TTV ≤ 2 μm
Bow μm
Finish (surface)
Mirror Polished (Etched)
Mirror Polished (Etched)
Individual N2 gas Package
Size (Diameter) 50 ± 0.1 mm
Orientation Flat
(0-1-1) ± 0.05
16 ± 2
Idex Flat
(0-11) ± 2
7 ± 2


In addition, undoped InP wafer is available, which is an intrinsic one with high quality but competitive price.

2. Industry Norms for Indium Phosphide Substrate

The geometry of monocrystalline InP thin film meets the requirements in the Table 1. Usually, the actual parameters will be higher than the standard parameters.

Table 1 InP Wafer Geometric Parameters

Item Value
Diameter/mm 50.8 76.2 100
Diameter Deviation/mm ±0.5 ±0.5 ±0.5
Thickness/um 450 625 650
Thickness Deviation/um ±25 ±25 ±25
Main Reference Plane/mm 16±2 22±2 32.5±2
Secondary Reference Plane/mm 8±2 11±2 18±2
Flatness/um ≤20 ≤25 ≤30
Warp/ um ≤15 ≤20 ≤25
TTV/um ≤20 ≤25 ≤30


The electrical parameters should meet the requirements in the Table 2. However, the parameters of the wafer offered by us will be higher than industry requirements.

Table 2 Electrical Parameters of InP Sheet

Conductivity Dopant Carrier Concentration/cm-3 Mobility/cm2 V-s Resistivity/ohm-cm
N-type S ≥5×1017 ≥500
Sn ≥5×1016 ≥1 000
Semi-insulating Fe ≥1 000 ≥5×106
P-type Zn ≥5×1015 ~50


The surface of the InP wafer should be free of cracks, twinning lines, orange peel, white fog, and micropores. The InP crystal substrate wafer dislocation density should meet the requirements of Table 3. Compared with the standard requirement, the actual parameters of our wafer will be higher.

Table 3 Dislocation Density of InP Material

Item Dopant
S Sn Fe Zn
Diameter/mm 50.8 76.2 100 50.8 50.8 76.2 100 50.8
Dislocation Density/cm2 <1×104 <5×104 <1×105 <5×104 <1×105 <5×105 <1×106 <1×104


The InP substrate orientation is determined by the buyer and the supplier.

3. InP Substrate Opportunities in the 5G Era

At present, the 4-inch InP single crystal substrate and processing technology have begun to realize industrialization. The growth and processing technology of 6-inch indium phosphide single crystal substrate wafer is developing in the direction of mass production. It is believed that in the near future, 4-inch single crystal InP substrate will replace 2-inch substrate and become the main market product. InP crystal wafer will develop towards high-end products.

The high-frequency, high-speed, and high-power characteristics of 5G have a great improvement for the performance of power amplifiers (PA), and have imposed stricter requirements on the semiconductor materials used to prepare PA devices.

Compared with silicon and gallium arsenide materials, InP semiconductor materials have high electro-optical conversion efficiency, high electron mobility, high working temperature, and strong radiation resistance. Therefore, it is used in commercial field. It has a wide range of applications, such as terahertz (THz), lasers, solar cells, photodetectors, and fiber optic network systems, including home fiber and data center transmission, and the 5G mobile network. These are all for InP Substrate materials bring huge market prospects.

InP semiconductor substrate has a wide band gap structure, and the speed of electrons passing through InP material is fast, which means that devices made on N type, P type or semi-insulating InP substrate can amplify signals of higher frequency or shorter wavelength. For example, in the satellite field, receivers and amplifiers made with InP chips can obtain frequencies above 100GHZ. In addition, InP-based solar cells can currently achieve a conversion efficiency of up to 44.7%.

Therefore, InP substrate material is a more advanced semiconductor material than GaAs and has obvious advantages in optical fiber communications, millimeter wave and wireless applications.

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