Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) Measurement

Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) Measurement

With the increasing development of semiconductor devices, silicon and silicon-based materials still show their superior properties, and it will still be an important material for semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. With the decreasing size of devices, the resistivity, impurity distribution, film thickness and quality control of silicon and silicon-based materials are extremely important. Using spreading resistance profiling (SRP) to test and analyze silicon and silicon-based materials is more intuitive and effective than other testing methods. PAM-XIAMEN can offer silicon wafers with spreading resistance profiling services if necessary.

SRP is also known as spreading resistance analysis (SRA), that is, diffusion resistance distribution is a method for testing electrical parameters such as diffusion resistance, resistivity, carrier concentration distribution, etc. of semiconductor materials with higher resolution, which belongs to an experimental comparison method.

1. Basic Principles of SRP – Spreading Resistance Profiling (Based on Silicon Wafer)

The steps of spreading resistance profile are to measure the spread resistance of a series of point contacts (Rs is the ratio of the potential drop between the conductive metal probe and a reference point on the silicon wafer to the current flowing through the probe), and then use the calibration curve to determine The resistivity of the tested sample near the contact point of the spreading resistance probe is converted into the carrier concentration corresponding to the series of test points.

Schematic of Spreading Resistance Profiling

Schematic of Spreading Resistance Probe Technique Profiling

In order to improve the spatial resolution and at the same time according to the different target measurement depths, the direction of the cross section of the sample can be ground into a series of angles, and the change of resistivity within 5 nm of the resolution depth direction can be measured after grinding the silicon wafer.

Take the silicon epitaxial wafer for example:

Item Parameter Spec Unit
1 Growth Method CZ
2 Diameter 100+/-0.5 mm
3 Type-Dopant P- Boron
4 Resistivity  0.002 – 0.003  ohm-cm
5 Resistivity Radial Variation <10 %
6 Crystal Orientation <111>  4 +/- 0.5 degree
7 Primary Flat Orientation Semi degree
Length Semi mm
8 Secondary Flat Orientation  Semi degree
Length    semi mm
9 Thickness 525 +/- 25 μm
10 TTV ≦10 μm
11 Bow ≦40  μm
12 Warp ≦40  μm
13 Front Surface polished
14 Backside  etched
15 Surface Appearance no cratches, haze, edge chips, orange peel, defects, contamination
16 Edge Profile  Edge Rounding
17 Particle (>0.3μm) N/A ea/wf
19 Epi Layer 1 N Phos
20 Resistivity 3.8 – 5.2 ohm cm
21 Thickness 29.0 – 35.0 um
22 Epi Layer 2 N Phos
23 Resistivity 0.0014 – 0.0026 ohm cm
24 Thickness 36.0 – 44.0  

Note:The epi wafer can be processed and fabricated into Circuit Protection TVS Diodes, they are very similar to that of a schottky diode. When the first epi layer is too thin to get the proper performance and break down Voltage and the TVS circuit won’t regulate. Transient voltage suppressor diodes are very popular devices used to instantaneously clamp transient voltages (e.g., ESD events) to safe levels before they can damage a circuit. The are designed to react much faster then your typical zener or schottky diode.

We test the above specification by SRP test and obtain the resistance and thickness of the epilayers. Please see the diagram attached below:

SRP of silicon epi layer

2. Pros and Cons of Spreading Resistance Profile Measurement


  • Excellent spatial resolution;
  • Concise and intuitive testing;
  • Wide resistivity test range;
  • Can be used as a multi-layered profile



  • Destructive test

3. Applications of Spreading Resistance Profiling and Analyzing

SRP is more and more widely used in epitaxial wafer and IC pattern wafer testing due to its superior spatial resolution. SRP technology can measure not only the longitudinal resistance change of epitaxial wafer, but also epitaxial layer thickness, transition region and interlayer width.

The resistivity (or concentration) and depth distribution of epitaxial layers such as Si, InP, GaAs, SiC, etc., are tested with the spreading resistance profiling method. Knowing the thickness of the epitaxial layer, the width of the transition region and the resistivity of the substrate and the resistivity of the epitaxial wafer at a certain depth, it is possible to diagnose the quality of the epitaxial wafer.

Please note that SRP measures only the activated partial doping concentration.

For more information, please contact us email at victorchan@powerwaywafer.com and powerwaymaterial@gmail.com.

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