Silicon Ingot

Silicon Ingot

You can buy P-type or N-type silicon ingot crystal from PAM-XIAMEN, which is a silicon ingot manufacturing company. To get monocrystalline silicon ingot, the silicon material is melted in a single crystal furnace and then undergoes a series of processes to grow into single crystal silicon rods, and subsequent machining of the single crystal silicon rods, and finally obtain the silicon boule crystal.

silicon ingot

1. Silicon Ingot List

Ingot Number Ingot Diameter Type, Orientation Ingot Length(mm) Resistivity  Lifetime Qty
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-24 103.4 N111 167 15000 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-25 103.5 N111 196 17000 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-62 105 N100 165 810 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-67 MC200 P110 243 0.313 3.51% 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-89 200 P110 186 1.61 10.56% 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-93 86 N100 76 4700 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-94 82 N100 75 6800 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-95 79 N100 102 13000 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-100 8″ 300mm 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-108 4″ 95mm 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-109 6″ 252mm 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-113 2″ 195mm 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-114 3″ 95mm 1
PAM-XIAMEN-INGOT-127 A Side 140mm and B side170mm 100mm 1

2. Classification of Silicon Crystal According to Growth Method

Single crystal silicon is a very important crystalline silicon material. According to different silicon ingot growth methods by silicon ingot factory, it can be divided into zone-melted single crystal silicon and Czochralski single crystal silicon.

* Zone-melted single crystal silicon is prepared by the method of floating zone smelting, so it is also called FZ silicon single crystal. FZ silicon ingot is mainly used in high-power devices, and only accounts for a small part of the monocrystalline silicon market.

* Czochralski single crystal silicon is prepared by the Czochralski method, called CZ single crystal silicon. CZ silicon ingot is mainly used in microelectronic integrated circuits and solar cells.

3. Industry Norms for CZ or FZ Crystal Silicon Ingot

The silicon ingots for solar, power devices, or other fields are in high quality and competitive price. Moreover, the parameters of the monocrystalline silicon crystal meet the norms as stipulated. Furthermore, you can customize the silicon ingot purity.

3.1 Silicon Single Crystal Resistivity and Carrier Lifetime

The resistivity range and minority carrier lifetime of FZ high-resistance Si ingots should meet the requirements of the following table:

Conductivity type Dopant Diameter/mm Resistivity range/(Ω- cm) Minority carrier lifetime/us
p B 30~200 3 000~20 000 >500
n p 30~200 800~10 000 >1 000
The resistivity value is the resistivity of silicon single crystal measured with two probes.


The resistivity range and radial resistivity variation of silicon crystal ingot from us meet the requirements in the following table.

The carrier lifetime of CZ Si ingot should be determined by negotiation between the supplier and the buyer.

Conductivity type Doping element Resistivity range/(Ω-cm) Radial Resistivity Variation b/%
<50.8mm (100)/(111) 50.8mm (100)/(111) 76.2mm (100)/(111)  100mm (100)/(111)  125mm (100)/(111) 150mm (100)/(111) 200mm (100)
p B 0.001~0.1 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤6/≤6 ≤6/≤9 ≤5/≤8 ≤12
>0.1~60 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8 ≤8/≤9 ≤6/≤9 ≤5/≤8 ≤5
n P 0.001~0.1 ≤15/≤25 ≤15/≤25 ≤15/≤25 ≤15/≤25 ≤15/≤25 ≤15/≤25 ≤15
>0.1~60 ≤12/≤20 ≤12/≤20 ≤12/≤20 ≤12/≤25 ≤12/≤25 ≤12/≤25 ≤15
n Sb ≤0.02 ≤12/20 ≤12/20 ≤12/20 ≤12/≤25 ≤10/≤25 ≤10/≤35 ≤12
As ≤0.006 ≤12/20 ≤12/20 ≤12/20 ≤12/≤25 ≤12/≤30 ≤12/≤30 ≤12


* The resistivity value is measured on the cross-section of a silicon single crystal using a straight four-pin;

* The value of the radial resistivity variation is measured on the specified end face of the ingot of silicon using a straight row of four needles.

3.2 Standard Method for Testing Silicon Ingot Orientation

The CZ crystal orientation deviation should be </= 2°, and the deviation of the FZ silicon ingot crystal orientation should be </=5 °. There are 2 main methods for testing the ingot orientation of silicon:

a) X-ray diffraction orientation method

The atoms of a silicon ingot arranged in a three-dimensional periodic crystal structure can be regarded as the atoms arranged in a series of parallel planes with a vertical distance of d in space. When a parallel monochromatic X-ray strikes the plane, and the optical path difference between the adjacent planes of X-rays is an integer multiple of its wavelength, diffraction (reflection) occurs.

b) Light pattern orientation

After the silicon ingot surface is ground and preferentially etched, many tiny pits will appear. These pits are constrained on the plane related to the main boule direction of the material, and these boundary planes determine the pit shape of the etched surface. The light pattern of the small plane composed of pits is related to the crystallographic direction of the measured plane, so the light pattern can be used to determine the surface crystallographic direction and its deviation angle.

4. More posts about silicon ingot, please read:

1″ FZ Silicon Ingot with Diameter 25mm

2″ FZ Silicon Ingot with Diameter 50mm

Silicon Ingots-1

Silicon Ingots-2

Silicon Ingots-3

P or N Type Silicon Crystal with A Orientation of (100), (110) or (111)



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