Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

PAM-XIAMEN offers semiconductor materials,single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer grown by VGF / LEC
  • Description

Product Description

Single crystal (Ge)Germanium Wafer

PAM-XIAMEN offers semiconductor materials,Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers grown by VGF / LEC. Lightly doped P and N type Germanium can be also used for Hall effect experiment.

1. Properties of Germanium Wafer

1.1 General Properties of Germanium Wafer

General  Properties StructureCubic, a = 5.6754 Å
Density: 5.765 g/cm3
Melting   Point: 937.4 oC
Thermal Conductivity: 640
Crystal Growth TechnologyCzochralski
Doping  availableUndopedSb DopingDoping In or Ga
Conductive Type/NP
Resistivity,>35< 0.050.05 – 0.1
EPD< 5×103/cm2< 5×103/cm2< 5×103/cm2
< 5×102/cm2< 5×102/cm2< 5×102/cm2


1.2.Grades and Application of Germanium wafer

Electronic GradeUsed for diodes and transistors,
Infrared or opitical GradeUsed for IR optical window or disks,opitical components
Cell GradeUsed for substrates of solar cell


1.3.Standard Specs of Germanium Crystal and wafer

Crystal Orientation<111>,<100> and <110> ± 0.5o or custom orientation
Crystal boule as grown1″ ~ 6″ diameter  x  200 mm Length
Standard blank as cut1″x 0.5mm2″x0.6mm4″x0.7mm5″&6″x0.8mm
Standard Polished wafer(One/two sides polished)1″x 0.30 mm2″x0.5mm4″x0.5mm 5″&6″x0.6mm

Special size and orientation are available upon requested Wafers

2. Specification of Germanium Wafer

2.1 Specification of Germanium Wafer of 2”,3”,4”and 6”size

Growth MethodVGF
Conduction Typen-type, p type, undoped 
DopantGallium or Antimony
Wafer Diamter2, 3,4 & 6 inch
Crystal Orientation(100),(111),(110)
Carrier Concentrationrequest upon customers 
Resistivity at RT(0.001~80)
Etch Pit Density<5000/cm2
Laser Markingupon request
Surface FinishP/E or P/P
Epi readyYes
PackageSingle wafer container or cassette


2.2 Germanium Wafer for Solar Cell

4 inch Ge wafer Specificationfor Solar Cells —
DopingP —
Doping substances Ge-Ga —
Diameter 100±0.25 mm —
Orientation(100) 9° off toward <111>+/-0.5
Off-orientation tilt angleN/A —
Primary Flat OrientationN/A —
Primary Flat Length32±1mm
Secondary Flat Orientation N/A —
Secondary Flat LengthN/A mm
Electron Mobility382-865cm2/v.s.
Laser MarkN/A —
Thickness175±10 μm
BOW <10μm
Front face Polished —
Back face Ground —


3. Germanium Wafer Process

In the germanium wafer production process, germanium dioxide from the residue processing is further purified in chlorination and hydrolysis steps.
1)High purity germanium is obtained during zone refining.
2)A germanium crystal is produced via the Czochralski process.
3)The germanium wafer is manufactured via several cutting, grinding, and etching steps.
4)The wafers are cleaned and inspection. During this process, the wafers are single side polished or double side polished according to custom requirement, epi-ready wafer comes.
5)The wafers are packed in single wafer containers, under a nitrogen atmosphere.

4.Application of Germanium:

Germanium blank or window are used in night vision and thermographic imaging solutions for commercial security, fire fighting and industrial monitoring equipment. Also, they are used as filters for analytical and measuring equipment, windows for remote temperature measurement, and mirrors for lasers.

Thin Germanium substrates are used in III-V triple-junction solar cells and for power Concentrated PV (CPV) systems.

5.Test of Germanium Wafer:

The resistivity of the Germanium crystal was measured by Four Probe Resistance Tester, and the surface roughness of Germanium was measured by profilometer.





For more information, please contact us email at [email protected] and [email protected]


Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

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