Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

PAM-XIAMEN offers 2”, 3”, 4” and 6” germanium wafer, which is short for Ge wafer grown by VGF / LEC. Lightly doped P and N type Germanium wafer can be also used for Hall effect experiment. At room temperature, crystalline germanium is brittle and has little plasticity. Germanium has semiconductor properties. High-purity germanium is doped with trivalent elements (such as indium, gallium, boron) to obtain P-type germanium semiconductors; and pentavalent elements (such as antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus) are doped to obtain N-type germanium semiconductors. Germanium has good semiconductor properties, such as high electron mobility and high hole mobility.
  • Description

Product Description

Single Crystal Germanium Wafer

PAM-XIAMEN offers 2”, 3”, 4” and 6” germanium wafer, which is short for Ge wafer grown by VGF / LEC. Lightly doped N and P type Germanium wafer can be also used for Hall effect experiment. At room temperature, crystalline germanium is brittle and has little plasticity. Germanium has semiconductor properties. High-purity germanium is doped with trivalent elements (such as indium, gallium, boron) to obtain P-type germanium semiconductors; and pentavalent elements (such as antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus) are doped to obtain N-type germanium semiconductors. Germanium has good semiconductor properties, such as high electron mobility and high hole mobility.

1. Properties of Germanium Wafer

1.1 General Properties of Germanium Wafer

General  Properties Structure Cubic, a = 5.6754 Å
Density: 5.765 g/cm3
Melting   Point: 937.4 oC
Thermal Conductivity: 640
Crystal Growth Technology Czochralski
Doping  available Undoped Sb Doping Doping In or Ga
Conductive Type / N P
Resistivity, ohm.cm >35 < 0.05 0.05 – 0.1
EPD < 5×103/cm2 < 5×103/cm2 < 5×103/cm2
< 5×102/cm2 < 5×102/cm2 < 5×102/cm2

 

1.2 Grades and Application of Germanium wafer

Electronic Grade Used for diodes and transistors,
Infrared or opitical Grade Used for IR optical window or disks,opitical components
Cell Grade Used for substrates of solar cell

 

1.3 Standard Specs of Germanium Crystal and wafer

Crystal Orientation <111>,<100> and <110> ± 0.5o or custom orientation
Crystal boule as grown 1″ ~ 6″ diameter  x  200 mm Length
Standard blank as cut 1″x 0.5mm 2″x0.6mm 4″x0.7mm 5″&6″x0.8mm
Standard Polished wafer(One/two sides polished) 1″x 0.30 mm 2″x0.5mm 4″x0.5mm  5″&6″x0.6mm
  • Special size and orientation are available upon requested Wafers

2. Specification of Germanium Wafer

2.1 Specification of Germanium Wafer of 2”,3”,4”and 6”size

Item Specifications Remarks
Growth Method VGF
Conduction Type n-type, p type, undoped  
Dopant Gallium or Antimony
Wafer Diamter 2, 3,4 & 6  inch
Crystal Orientation (100),(111),(110)
Thickness 200~550 um
OF EJ or US
Carrier Concentration request upon customers  
Resistivity at RT (0.001~80) Ohm.cm
Etch Pit Density <5000 /cm2
Laser Marking upon request
Surface Finish P/E or P/P
Epi ready Yes
Package Single wafer container or cassette

 

2.2 Germanium Wafer for Solar Cell

4 inch Ge wafer Specification for Solar Cells  —
Doping P  —
Doping substances  Ge-Ga  —
Diameter  100±0.25 mm  —
Orientation (100) 9° off toward <111>+/-0.5
Off-orientation tilt angle N/A  —
Primary Flat Orientation N/A  —
Primary Flat Length 32±1 mm
Secondary Flat Orientation  N/A  —
Secondary Flat Length N/A  mm
cc (0.26-2.24)E18 /c.c
Resistivity (0.74-2.81)E-2 ohm.cm
Electron Mobility 382-865 cm2/v.s.
EPD <300 /cm2
Laser Mark N/A  —
Thickness 175±10  μm
TTV <15 μm
TIR N/A μm
BOW  <10 μm
Warp <10 μm
Front face  Polished  —
Back face  Ground  —

 

3. Germanium Wafer Process

With the advancement of science and technology, the processing technique of germanium wafer manufacturers is more and more mature. In the production of germanium wafers, germanium dioxide from the residue processing is further purified in chlorination and hydrolysis steps.
1)High purity germanium is obtained during zone refining.
2)A germanium crystal is produced via the Czochralski process.
3)The germanium wafer is manufactured via several cutting, grinding, and etching steps.
4)The wafers are cleaned and inspection. During this process, the wafers are single side polished or double side polished according to custom requirement, epi-ready wafer comes.
5)The thin germanium wafers are packed in single wafer containers, under a nitrogen atmosphere.

4. Application of Germanium:

Germanium blank or window are used in night vision and thermographic imaging solutions for commercial security, fire fighting and industrial monitoring equipment. Also, they are used as filters for analytical and measuring equipment, windows for remote temperature measurement, and mirrors for lasers.

Thin Germanium substrates are used in III-V triple-junction solar cells and for power Concentrated PV (CPV) systems.

5. Test of Germanium Wafer:

The resistivity of the crystal germanium wafer was measured by Four Probe Resistance Tester, and the surface roughness of Germanium was measured by profilometer.

 

 

 

 

For more information, please contact us email at [email protected] and [email protected]

 

Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers

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