Ge(Germanium) Single Crystals and Wafers
Single Crystal Germanium Wafer
PAM-XIAMEN offers 2”, 3”, 4” and 6” germanium wafer, which is short for Ge wafer grown by VGF / LEC. Lightly doped N and P type Germanium wafer can be also used for Hall effect experiment. At room temperature, crystalline germanium is brittle and has little plasticity. Germanium has semiconductor properties. High-purity germanium is doped with trivalent elements (such as indium, gallium, boron) to obtain P-type germanium semiconductors; and pentavalent elements (such as antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus) are doped to obtain N-type germanium semiconductors. Germanium has good semiconductor properties, such as high electron mobility and high hole mobility.
1. Properties of Germanium Wafer
1.1 General Properties of Germanium Wafer
|General Properties Structure||Cubic, a = 5.6754 Å|
|Density: 5.765 g/cm3|
|Melting Point: 937.4 oC|
|Thermal Conductivity: 640|
|Crystal Growth Technology||Czochralski|
|Doping available||Undoped||Sb Doping||Doping In or Ga|
|Resistivity, ohm.cm||>35||< 0.05||0.05 – 0.1|
|EPD||< 5×103/cm2||< 5×103/cm2||< 5×103/cm2|
|< 5×102/cm2||< 5×102/cm2||< 5×102/cm2|
1.2 Grades and Application of Germanium wafer
|Electronic Grade||Used for diodes and transistors,|
|Infrared or opitical Grade||Used for IR optical window or disks,opitical components|
|Cell Grade||Used for substrates of solar cell|
1.3 Standard Specs of Germanium Crystal and wafer
|Crystal Orientation||<111>,<100> and <110> ± 0.5o or custom orientation|
|Crystal boule as grown||1″ ~ 6″ diameter x 200 mm Length|
|Standard blank as cut||1″x 0.5mm||2″x0.6mm||4″x0.7mm||5″&6″x0.8mm|
|Standard Polished wafer(One/two sides polished)||1″x 0.30 mm||2″x0.5mm||4″x0.5mm||5″&6″x0.6mm|
- Special size and orientation are available upon requested Wafers
2. Specification of Germanium Wafer
2.1 Specification of Germanium Wafer of 2”,3”,4”and 6”size
|Conduction Type||n-type, p type, undoped|
|Dopant||Gallium or Antimony||—|
|Wafer Diamter||2, 3,4 & 6||inch|
|OF||EJ or US||—|
|Carrier Concentration||request upon customers|
|Resistivity at RT||(0.001~80)||Ohm.cm|
|Etch Pit Density||<5000||/cm2|
|Laser Marking||upon request||—|
|Surface Finish||P/E or P/P||—|
|Package||Single wafer container or cassette||—|
2.2 Germanium Wafer for Solar Cell
|4 inch Ge wafer Specification||for Solar Cells||—|
|Orientation||(100) 9° off toward <111>+/-0.5|
|Off-orientation tilt angle||N/A||—|
|Primary Flat Orientation||N/A||—|
|Primary Flat Length||32±1||mm|
|Secondary Flat Orientation||N/A||—|
|Secondary Flat Length||N/A||mm|
3. Germanium Wafer Process
With the advancement of science and technology, the processing technique of germanium wafer manufacturers is more and more mature. In the production of germanium wafers, germanium dioxide from the residue processing is further purified in chlorination and hydrolysis steps.
1)High purity germanium is obtained during zone refining.
2)A germanium crystal is produced via the Czochralski process.
3)The germanium wafer is manufactured via several cutting, grinding, and etching steps.
4)The wafers are cleaned and inspection. During this process, the wafers are single side polished or double side polished according to custom requirement, epi-ready wafer comes.
5)The thin germanium wafers are packed in single wafer containers, under a nitrogen atmosphere.
4. Application of Germanium:
Germanium blank or window are used in night vision and thermographic imaging solutions for commercial security, fire fighting and industrial monitoring equipment. Also, they are used as filters for analytical and measuring equipment, windows for remote temperature measurement, and mirrors for lasers.
Thin Germanium substrates are used in III-V triple-junction solar cells and for power Concentrated PV (CPV) systems.
5. Test of Germanium Wafer:
The resistivity of the crystal germanium wafer was measured by Four Probe Resistance Tester, and the surface roughness of Germanium was measured by profilometer.
You may also like…
PAM-XIAMEN offers Compound Semiconductor InSb wafer – Indium antimonide wafer which is grown by LEC(Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski) as epi-ready or mechanical grade with n type, p type or semi-insulating in different orientation(111) or (100). Indium antimonide doped with isoelectronic(such as N doping) can reduce the defect density during the indium antimonide thin films manufacturing process.
CdZnTe (CZT) WaferCadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a new semiconductor, which enables to convert radiation to electron effectively, it is mainly used in infrared thin-film epitaxy substrate, X-ray detectors and Gamma-ray CdZnTe detectors.
GaN based LED Epitaxial Wafer
PAM-XIAMEN’s GaN(gallium nitride)-based LED epitaxial wafer is for ultra high brightness blue and green light emitting diodes (LED) and laser diodes (LD) application.
SiC Wafer Substrate
The company has a complete SiC(silicon carbide) wafer substrate production line integrating crystal growth, crystal processing, wafer processing, polishing, cleaning and testing. Nowadays we supply commercial 4H and 6H SiC wafers with semi insulation and conductivity in on-axis or off-axis, available size:5x5mm2,10x10mm2, 2”,3”,4” and 6”, breaking through key technologies such as defect suppression, seed crystal processing and rapid growth, promoting basic research and development related to silicon carbide epitaxy, devices, etc.
GaN TemplatesPAM-XIAMEN’s Template Products consist of crystalline layers of (gallium nitride)GaN templates, (aluminum nitride)AlN template,(aluminum gallium nitride) AlGaN templates and (indium gallium nitride) InGaN templates, which are deposited on sapphire
PAM-XIAMEN is manufacturing various types of epi wafer III-V silicon doped n-type semiconductor materials based on Ga, Al, In, As and P grown by MBE or MOCVD. We supply custom GaAs epiwafer structures to meet customer specifications, please contact us for more information.
Epitaxial Silicon Wafer
Silicon Epitaxial Wafer(Epi Wafer) is a layer of epitaxial silicon single crystal deposited onto a single crystal silicon wafer(note: it is available to grow a layer of poly crystalline Silicon layer on top of a highly doped Singly crystalline silicon wafer, but it needs buffer layer (such as oxide or poly-Si) in between the bulk Si substrate and the top epitaxial silicon layer. It also can be used for thin film transistor.
PAM-XIAMEN Offers photoresist plate with photoresist